# Math

This discipline is more than just a collection of skills and concepts to be mastered; today’s mathematically literate students must be able to explore, analyze, conjecture and reason logically as well. Students learn these abilities at Concordia and develop strategies for learning and using mathematics with confidence in a continually changing world.

This discipline is more than a collection of skills and concepts to be mastered. Students must be able to explore, conjecture and reason logically as well.

Students in this pioneering course use big data analytics to gain insights into many practical, real-life problems.

Confidence and mastery are essential for advancement through Concordia's math sequence. Students are screened to determine appropriate placement.

## General Requirements

## Algebra 1

Algebra 1 is a course designed to develop core knowledge of mathematics. Rules of algebra are established to allow students to work with algebraic expressions, formulas, linear equations and inequalities. Skills for working with exponents, various degrees of polynomials, proportions, functions and radicals are also developed. An emphasis is placed on problem solving and real life applications. After Algebra 1, students will be recommended for either Geometry or Honors Geometry by their Algebra 1 teacher and the math department.

Duration: 2 Semesters

Credit: 1.0

Prerequisite: Pre-Algebra

## Geometry

## Geometry

In Geometry, students will study inductive and deductive reasoning, basic geometric terms, geometric shapes and constructions, areas and volumes, transformations, the Pythagorean Theorem, trigonometry and an introduction to geometric proofs. An emphasis is placed on problem solving, real life applications and an integrated review of Algebra. Students generally continue their mathematics education in Algebra 2 after Geometry. However, a student may earn a recommendation for Honors Algebra 2 based on their demonstrated mastery of both Geometry and Algebra skills.

Duration: 2 Semesters

Credit: 1.0

Prerequisite: Algebra 1 (Placement is determined by math department)

## Honors Geometry

Students will study inductive and deductive reasoning, basic geometric terms, geometric shapes and constructions, areas and volumes, transformations, the Pythagorean Theorem, trigonometry and geometric proofs. An emphasis is placed on problem solving, real life applications and the use of technology. A student from Honors Geometry will be placed in either Algebra 2 or Honors Algebra for the following year based on both the student’s Honors Geometry grades, and his/her performance on the Algebra skills placement exam, given at the end of March each year.

Duration: 2 Semesters

Credit: 1.0

Prerequisite: Algebra 1 (Placement is determined by math department)

## Algebra 2

## Algebra 2

Algebra 2 completes the development of mathematical core knowledge. The course includes further work in solving and graphing linear equations, as well

as work in systems of equations, matrices, complex numbers and a variety of functions, including quadratic, polynomial, exponential, logarithmic and rational. The next course after Algebra 2 is usually Advanced Algebra with Applications. However, a student may earn a placement in Precalculus if he/she obtains high grades in the Algebra 2 course for the year, and if the student is willing to study Trigonometry on their own.

Duration: 2 Semesters

Credit: 1.0

Prerequisite: Algebra 1 & Geometry (Placement is determined by the math department.)

## Honors Algebra 2

Algebra 2 completes the development of mathematical core knowledge. The course includes further work in solving and graphing linear equations, work in systems of equations, matrices, complex numbers and a variety of functions, including quadratic, polynomial, exponential, logarithmic and rational. In Honors Algebra 2, students also study trigonometry, probability and statistics. An emphasis is placed on problem solving and real life applications. Students from Honors Algebra 2 are generally placed into Precalculus or Honors Precalculus for the following year. Placement is based on many factors, including the student’s demonstrated mastery of abstract concepts, his/her ability to make connections, and speed with which the student is able to grasp new concepts, along with the grade earned in the Honors Algebra 2 course. Students may also choose AP Statistics following Honors Algebra 2, provided they meet the prerequisite.

Duration: 2 Semesters

Credit: 1.0

Prerequisite: Algebra 1 & Geometry (Placement is determined by math department)

## Math Sequence

## Advanced Placement Courses

## AP Statistics

This course introduces students to the major concepts and tools for collecting, analyzing and drawing conclusions from data. Four broad conceptual themes are presented: Exploring Data, Sampling and Experimentation, Anticipating Patterns and Statistical Inference. A TI Nspire graphing calculator will be used extensively in class and on all forms of assessment.

Duration: 2 Semesters

Credit: 1.0

Prerequisite: Algebra 2, appropriate level of scholarship in prior courses

## AP Calculus AB & AP Calculus BC

Calculus AB is primarily concerned with developing the students’ understanding of the concepts of calculus and providing experience with its methods and applications. The course emphasizes a multi-representational approach to calculus, with concepts, results and problems being expressed graphically, numerically, analytically and verbally. This course starts with limits and continuity and proceeds into derivatives and integrals. The derivative is presented and interpreted as a rate of change in varied applied contexts, including velocity, speed and acceleration. Analysis of curves is also carried out using concavity, points of inflection and the second derivative. The integral is introduced and applied to problems of area, volume, velocity, work, lengths of plane curves, springs and fluid forces. The course extends into differentiation and integration of trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions and further methods of integration. If enrolled in AP Calculus BC, you will further your study of calculus with parametric and polar equations, partial fractions, sequences and series, improper integrals and infinite polynomials.

Duration: 2 Semesters

Credit: 1.0

Prerequisite: Minimum B in Pre-Calculus (for AB), an ‘A’ in Honors Pre- Calculus/Calculus A (for BC), appropriate level of scholarship in prior courses

## AP Computer Science

The AP Computer Science course is a college-level introduction to computer science. A large part of the course is built around the development of computer programs or parts of programs that correctly solve a given problem. The course also emphasizes the design issues that make programs understandable, adaptable and, when appropriate, reusable. AP Computer Science utilizes Java and emphasizes object-oriented programming methodology with a concentration on problem solving and algorithm development. In addition, an understanding of the basic hardware and software components of computer systems and the responsible use of these systems are integral parts of the course.

Duration: 2 Semesters

Credit: 1.0 Prerequisite: Minimum “A-“in Algebra 2

## AP Computer Science Principles

Whether it’s 3-D animation, engineering, music, app development, medicine, visual design, robotics, or political analysis, computer science is the engine that powers the technology, productivity, and innovation that drive the world. Computer science experience has become an imperative for today’s students and the workforce of tomorrow. This course introduces students to the foundational concepts of computer science and challenges them to explore how computing and technology can impact the world. The AP Computer Science Principles course is designed with the goal of creating leaders in computer science fields and attracting and engaging those who are traditionally underrepresented with essential computing tools and multidisciplinary opportunities.

Duration: 2 Semesters Credit: 1.0

Prerequisite: two years of high school science and completion or concurrent enrollment in Algebra 2

## Math Electives

- Advanced Algebra with Applications
- Pre-Calculus
- Honors Pre-Calculus/Calculus A
- Big Data Analytics*+
- Multi-Variable Calculus (Math 213)*
- Linear Algebra with Differential Equations (Math 342)*
- Money, Accounting and Finance for Entrepreneurs

## Advanced Algebra with Applications

The first semester of Advanced Algebra with Applications takes an overview look at the functions from Algebra 2 - Linear, Quadratic, Polynomial, Radical, Exponential, Logarithmic and Rational - and adds to them the Trigonometric Functions. The semester will end with a unit on probability and statistics. The second semester shifts to an emphasis on Financial Algebra and real-life math skills students will need as they embark on life outside of high school. Students who will be returning to Concordia the year following their completion of Advanced Algebra with Applications should be prepared for Precalculus, and may be recommended for that course by their teacher.

Duration: 2 Semesters

Credit: 1.0

Prerequisite: Algebra 2

## Pre-Calculus

Students do an in-depth study of polynomial functions and inequalities, exponents and logarithms, analytical Trigonometry, conic sections, sequences and series. An emphasis is placed on problem solving, real life applications and the use of technology. Students from Precalculus generally continue in AP Calculus AB the following year, provided they meet the prerequisite grade. A student who has excelled

in Precalculus may choose to try for AP Calculus BC by completing a Calculus

A course and either submitting a transcript grade of B or higher, or sitting the placement exam in August. AP Statistics is also an excellent choice following Precalculus.

Duration: 2 Semesters

Credit: 1.0

Prerequisite: A ‘B’ in Honors Algebra 2 (Placement is determined by math department)

## Honors Pre-Calculus/Calculus A

Students in the Honors course review polynomial functions, inequalities, exponents and logarithms, then proceed to an in-depth study of analytical geometry, advanced trigonometry, vectors and matrices, conic sections and sequences and series. Introductory calculus topics, including continuity and limits are covered with the goal of being placement in an AP Calculus BC course the following year.

Duration: 2 Semesters

Credit: 1.0

Prerequisite: An ‘A’ in Honors Algebra 2 (Placement is determined by math department)

## Big Data Analytics*+

Big Data Analytics in the simplest of terms refers to the tools, processes and procedures allowing an organization to create, manipulate, and manage very large data sets and storage facilities. The process of sifting through sheer quantities of data proves to be a demanding process for any person to do. Big Data Analytics is a course that encompasses information technology, science and mathematics. This course will focus on the conceptual understanding and the application theory behind Big Data Analytics rather than explicit formulas and technical jargons. The main objective for this course is to create “awareness” and to be exposed to the realm of big data and the hidden dangers it might bring. This course will include some hands on experience utilizing big data analytics to solve some practical real life projects. Upon completion, you will be more aware about this big data phenomenon.

Duration: 1 Semester

Credit: 0.5

Prerequisite: Algebra 2

## Multi-Variable Calculus (Math 213)*

This course is designed to take the concepts that students have already learned in Calculus I and II and expand these into three dimensions. Topics explored will include three dimensional graphing, Partial Derivatives, Extrema of functions with 2 independent variables, double and triple integrals. All topics include applications in engineering, physics and other discipline areas. A TI Nspire graphing calculator is required and will be used for 3 dimensional graphing and modeling data. Math 213 is a credit course via Concordia University Portland.

Duration: 1 Semester

Credit: 0.5

Prerequisite: Minimum grade ‘B-’ in Calculus BC

## Linear Algebra with Differential Equations (Math 342)*

This course is designed to introduce students to introductory topics of linear algebra. Topics explored will include linear systems, linear transformations, orthonormal bases, the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process, least squares curve fitting procedures, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and differential equations. A TI Nspire graphing calculator is required. It will be used to perform matrix operations and create mathematical models from data. Math 342 is a credit course via Concordia University in Portland.

Duration: 1 Semester

Credit: 0.5

Prerequisite: Minimum grade ‘C’ in Multi- Variable Calculus

## Money, Accounting and Finance for Entrepreneurs

This course examines tools and practices necessary for entrepreneurs to access financing, manage cash flow, and measure financial performance. The course will help entrepreneurs to meet financial record-keeping requirements, identify areas of improvement, and determine actions needed to improve performance. Topics include entrepreneurial finance, assessing venture value, financial scorecard, financial dashboard, record-keeping, and cash management.

Duration: 2 Semesters

Credit: 1.0

Prerequisite: None